17 Types of Link Spam You Must Avoid

Written by RH Razu
Written by RH Razu


Table of Contents

In light of recent fluctuations in search engine rankings over the past few months, it has become evident that a poorly executed link-building strategy, often referred to as white-hat, can pose greater risks than black-hat tactics such as purchasing links. Many websites have experienced significant drops in their rankings and traffic due to well-intentioned but myopic link-building efforts. Whether your link-building techniques lean towards black hat, white hat, or any shade in between, it’s in your best interest to avoid any semblance of link spam.

It’s clear that recent algorithm updates have negatively impacted sites with overly aggressive link profiles. This article delves into several infamous types of links that you should steer clear of.

What is Link Spam?

Link spam, as defined by Google, involves the creation of backlinks with the intent of manipulating a website’s rankings in organic search results. It typically arises from black hat SEO practices related to link building. Google considers link spam a violation of its policies and may impose penalties, including manual actions, on websites engaging in such activities.

Google’s spam policy identifies several forms of link spam, including:

  1. Buying and selling links: Purchasing or exchanging links for the purpose of artificially boosting a website’s ranking.
  2. Generating links through automated programs: Using automated tools or software to create links in a manipulative manner.
  3. Excessive link exchanges and cross-linking: Exchanging links or creating multiple interconnected pages solely for the purpose of increasing link count.
  4. Forum comments with keyword-rich links: Leave comments on forums with links that are overly optimized and stuffed with keywords for SEO purposes.
  5. Widely distributed links in widgets, footers, and templates: Placing links in website widgets, footers, or templates that are distributed broadly and are not genuinely relevant or valuable.
  6. Advertisement links passing link equity: Using advertising links to pass PageRank or link equity, which manipulates the flow of authority in search results.

Google relies on a complex algorithm, as well as manual reviews, to identify and address link spam. The Penguin algorithm update, among others, was introduced to combat link spam and reduce its effectiveness. The algorithm assesses the quality and relevance of links pointing to a website and may penalize sites that engage in manipulative link-building practices. To maintain a strong online presence and avoid penalties, website owners should focus on natural and high-quality link-building practices that provide real value to users and the web.

Types of Link Spam to Avoid

1. Cleansing Domains:

Although not strictly a link-building technique, 301 “cleansing” domains represent a facet of link manipulation that warrants attention from every SEO practitioner. Engaging in black hat SEO tactics inherently carries the risk of repercussions. A common method employed by black hat practitioners is to build links to a separate domain that later redirects to their primary domain. This approach has historically served as a way to swiftly recover from Google penalties like those imposed by the Penguin algorithm. While ethical SEOs labor to eliminate numerous exact-match anchor text links, spammers can easily shed these redirected domains, much like anchors, and continue their operations with whatever gains they’ve acquired.

For instance, if someone were selling NFL jerseys, they might employ a “cleansing domain” to maintain their primary website’s SEO health. When the Penguin algorithm update was rolled out, this link farm’s cleansing domain transitioned from being a 301 redirect to a 404 error page almost overnight.

However, link-building through redirects is a tactic that can raise red flags. Acquiring new links to a domain that currently redirects is far from natural behavior. To observers, it’s akin to sending up a signal flare that reads, “I’m likely engaging in link manipulation.” While search engines may not be closely monitoring this practice at the moment, there’s no guarantee of future success. Therefore, it’s advisable to refrain from such tactics if long-term SEO success is your objective.

2. Blog Networks & Poorly Executed Guest Blogs

In a prior discussion, I delved extensively into the potential dangers associated with blog networks. Google has a strong aversion to blog networks, which are essentially networks of fabricated blogs where members either pay for or contribute content to obtain backlinks to their websites or their client’s sites. Guest blogging and other legitimate content contributions to authoritative websites are considered a much more ethical approach. However, it’s important to recognize that a strategy overly reliant on subpar guest blogging can resemble the characteristics of blog network spam.

Blog networks exhibit certain key traits. Each blog within the network typically maintains a consistent word-to-link ratio in its content. These blogs frequently post externally on various random sites, featuring a substantial amount of “inorganic” anchor text, often targeting commercially valuable keywords. Nearly all backlinks originating from blog networks are also deemed spammy.

It’s disconcerting to encounter low-quality blogs with questionable backlinks that accept guest blog posts adhering strictly to rigid word count and external link guidelines. Reputable and high-quality blogs tend to be less concerned with whether a post is precisely 400 or 500 words long and typically do not overload it with excessive linking. Although many of us view guest blogging as a white-hat SEO tactic, a backlink profile teeming with subpar guest posts bears a striking resemblance to the profile of a website employing automated blog networks.

To safeguard your website’s SEO integrity, it’s prudent to avoid blog networks entirely. Equally important is the caution against engaging in subpar and inorganic guest blogging practices that give off an unnatural appearance. If you decide to pursue guest blogging, prioritize websites with stringent quality standards and authentic, high-quality backlink profiles of their own.

3. Article Marketing Spam

Article link addiction continues to be a prevalent issue for newcomers to the world of SEO. The allure is simple: securing one or two links with your preferred anchor text seems to propel your rankings upward. You may not have landed on the first page just yet, but with a repeat of the process, you inch closer. These articles are readily available, cost-effective, and demand minimal creative or mental effort. It’s easy to notice diminishing returns on your article-based endeavors, but your response isn’t to desist. Instead, you seek to produce even more articles. Eventually, you find yourself scouring the internet for lists of top article sites that provide followed links and hunting for automated tools to construct low-quality links to your already subpar ones.

It’s vital to acknowledge that the majority of articles are essentially created solely for the purpose of acquiring a link. Moreover, virtually all followed links in this context are self-generated rather than authentic endorsements. Consequently, Google has significantly devalued the influence of article links and cracked down on article sites for their substandard content quality.

Perhaps you’re contemplating how to ride the wave of this seemingly beneficial trend. However, I encourage you to come to terms with the fact that article directories are unlikely to make a resurgence. While article links might have a legitimate purpose, they are generally devalued rather than penalized by search engines. As with any form of link spam, the risk of severe penalties escalates in proportion to the volume of similar links within your backlink profile.

4. Single-Post Blogs

Ironically labeled as “Web 2.0 Blogs” by some unscrupulous spammers, these miniature websites residing on Tumblr and WordPress sub-domains remain hidden in obscurity. Typically consisting of a mere two pages, these blogs are established as free content hubs, often featuring just an article or two, and then are artificially “enhanced” with link juice, typically sourced from social bookmarking links (discussed in more detail below).

Despite their widespread use, the impact of these sites on search engine rankings is minimal. Inbound links lacking substance enter, and outbound links devoid of any significant influence leave. These sites persist because, with a decent free template, it’s possible to present clients with a link on a page that doesn’t appear overly objectionable. Google doesn’t exert much effort in detecting and penalizing these sites since they inherently contribute very little to the online landscape.

5. (Paid) Site-Wide Links

Once, site-wide footer links were all the rage in the SEO world. However, Google has significantly reduced its power in passing link juice because most footer links pointing to external sites were either employed as Google Bombs or linked to through paid arrangements. After all, where else would you put a site-wide link that you don’t actually want your users to click on?

In line with my earlier point about avoiding the appearance of spam, Google’s Penguin update had a significant impact on websites that had a substantial proportion of site-wide (footer) links, even if many webmasters hadn’t considered them manipulative. For instance, a considerable number of free WordPress themes included footer links leading back to the creator’s website, often with carefully selected anchor text. In response, many WordPress theme creators have been scrambling to release updates that modify or remove these footer links. Penguin didn’t distinguish whether you went overboard with a plugin link, designed a website from scratch, or tinkered with a template; it penalized the excessive use of anchor text across the board. This underscores the notion that adhering to industry practices isn’t necessarily a guarantee of safety in the ever-evolving landscape of SEO.

6. Paid Links in Content

There will never be an infallible method for detecting every paid link. However, it’s surprisingly easy to leave a noticeable footprint when engaging in mass link buying. In such cases, you have to place trust in your link sellers to maintain discretion and expect other buyers to protect their sites from unwanted attention. If an unrelated buyer acquires links recklessly, the scrutiny may cascade through the network of sites they’ve purchased from and, eventually, lead to you.

For those who choose to buy links, mere knowledge of the process isn’t sufficient. It’s crucial to ensure that everyone involved comprehends the intricacies. Google is unforgiving when it comes to penalizing websites for buying links, and the consequences can be severe.

7. Link Exchanges, Wheels, etc.

You’re onto an interesting concept regarding the use of machine learning to detect link profiles that violate guidelines. Building a model to start with a known set of rule-breaking link profiles and then assess the probability of other sites engaging in similar practices is theoretically feasible. Such a model could leverage various data points, including the structure of backlinks, anchor text, and other linking patterns to detect anomalous behavior. The computing and programming power required for this would depend on the complexity of the model and the scale of the dataset, but it’s a potential avenue for improving link quality assessments.

Regarding link schemes and the practice of exchanging links, you’re absolutely correct that these approaches rely heavily on trust in strangers. In a link wheel, the overall effectiveness is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain. It’s a risky strategy, and if you have the expertise to evade detection, you’re likely better off channeling your efforts into creating high-quality, valuable content that can yield superior results without the associated risks of link schemes. Not only does this approach align more closely with search engine guidelines, but it also provides more sustainable, long-term benefits for your website’s authority and visibility in search results.

8. Low-Quality Press Release Syndication

High-quality syndication and wire services do indeed possess characteristics that deter spammers, such as editorial guidelines, associated costs, and even fact-checking processes. These services uphold certain standards and aim to maintain the credibility and reliability of the content they distribute. In contrast, low-quality syndication services may indiscriminately distribute almost any content to any website willing to accept it. While this approach might yield a multitude of links, it’s likely that only a fraction of these links will get indexed, and even fewer will carry any meaningful value in search engine algorithms.

In the context of press releases, my experience aligns with your observation that syndication alone results in rapidly diminishing returns. Achieving a return on investment (ROI) through press releases typically necessitates the generation of real, tangible media coverage. It’s not uncommon to encounter press releases densely packed with links on various websites that lack the newsworthiness required to secure coverage. For instance, a routine website redesign is generally not considered newsworthy.

The presence of such link-heavy press releases across the web could be attributed to a combination of factors, including ineffective PR strategies and misguided SEO practices. Crafting compelling press releases that genuinely capture the interest of media outlets and their audiences is a skilled endeavor that necessitates a balance between storytelling, news value, and SEO optimization. Ultimately, the most successful press releases are those that genuinely offer something noteworthy, relevant, and valuable to the public or a specific target audience.

9. Linkbait and Switch

In the context of creating linkbait, which is content designed to attract credible and high-quality backlinks, and later replacing it with content that serves a more commercial or financial purpose, it’s important to emphasize that such a strategy can be deceptive and is generally not in line with Google’s guidelines. Attempting to trick people and search engines into linking to content that ultimately serves a different purpose is not a practice that Google would endorse.

While linkbait and switch tactics may not be prevalent, they are generally frowned upon in the SEO community and are not a recommended approach. Instead, the most ethical and effective strategy for building high-quality backlinks is to create genuinely valuable and engaging content that naturally attracts links from reputable sources. If you have the ability to create and disseminate viral content, it’s more advantageous to leverage that success by incorporating smart link-building strategies within the viral content itself. Repeated success and a reputation for producing great content will solidify your standing as a trusted source in your niche or industry, ultimately yielding long-term benefits without the risks associated with deceptive practices.

10. Directories

Directories have been extensively discussed in the context of SEO. The consensus is that Google aims to devalue links from directories lacking genuine quality standards. It’s important to focus on directories that provide real value, such as those commonly used for local businesses (e.g., Yelp) and industry-specific directories with significant traffic.

Before investing in a directory listing, consider the following questions:

  1. Would I pay for a listing here?
  2. Are the majority of existing listings on this directory from high-quality sites?
  3. Do the listings typically link with the business or site name?

If the answer to any of these questions is no, it’s advisable to avoid pursuing a link from that directory. This essentially excludes most RSS or blog feed directories, which are often used primarily for reporting a higher quantity of links. In the past, some SEO practitioners were taught that directories, while not very beneficial, wouldn’t hurt, and thus they should acquire as many as possible in the most cost-effective way. However, recent experiences have demonstrated that poor-quality directory links can have a negative impact.

Interestingly, while composing this post, there were indications that Google had initiated the process of deindexing low-quality directories. The impact, though relatively small thus far, underscores the limited role these directories play in improving search engine rankings. It’s a reminder that focusing on quality over quantity is a prudent strategy when it comes to directory links.

11. Link Farms and Networks

Rand’s statement from 2009 rings true even today. Search engines have indeed evolved to become highly sophisticated in identifying and combatting link farming and other manipulative link-building tactics. Link farming involves the creation of a network of interconnected websites or pages solely for the purpose of exchanging links, often in an attempt to artificially inflate a site’s search engine rankings.

Over the years, search engines, particularly Google, have continually refined their algorithms to detect and penalize link farming and similar practices. As a result, what might appear to work as an SEO tactic for a short period is bound to be uncovered and thwarted by search engines in the long run.

The key takeaway here is that relying on manipulative and short-sighted tactics like link farming is not a sustainable approach to SEO. While such strategies may yield temporary gains, the risk of incurring penalties and damage to a website’s long-term reputation far outweighs any short-lived benefits. It’s far more advantageous to focus on white-hat SEO techniques that prioritize the creation of high-quality, valuable content and the cultivation of genuine, authoritative backlinks. This approach not only ensures long-term success but also aligns with search engine guidelines and ethical SEO practices.

12. Social Bookmarking & Sharing Sites

You’ve made some insightful observations about social bookmarking sites and their links. Indeed, many social bookmarking sites have lost their value over the years, primarily due to spam and a lack of user engagement. The overestimation of the importance of other people’s bookmarks is evident in the sheer number of spam-filled and abandoned social bookmarking sites on the internet.

Quality links on these platforms often struggle to carry much equity, and even if they do, they can get diluted as the links spread in multiple directions. This is why the SEO community has generally become more discerning about the social bookmarking sites they engage with.

User-generated content platforms, including social bookmarking sites, typically employ various methods to handle spam. Active sites with effective spam control and active user participation can naturally filter out low-quality content while promoting the best submissions. In contrast, sites with lax spam control become inundated with spammy links and tend to lose visitors and incoming links, which can negatively impact their reputation.

The lesson here is that, while social bookmarking and user-generated content platforms can still hold value for SEO and traffic generation, it’s crucial to focus on reputable, active sites with strong spam control and user engagement. Simply bombarding such sites with links is unlikely to yield positive results and can even lead to adverse consequences for your online presence. Quality and relevance are key, regardless of the platform.

13. Forum Spam

Forum spam has indeed been a persistent issue in the online landscape, and while it may not be entirely eradicated, its effectiveness and significance have significantly diminished over time. Even when a forum signature link is removed, the impact on SEO is often negligible. This is a common experience for many forum link-building tactics.

Many forums, even when links are marked as “nofollow,” still struggle with spam. Unchecked, these forums can quickly devolve into chaotic environments filled with gibberish phrases and anchor text links, detracting from their usability and value. Bing’s webmaster forums, as you’ve noted, have not been immune to this problem.

In light of these challenges, it’s important for webmasters and forum administrators to remain vigilant in combating spam and maintaining the quality of their platforms. Effective moderation, community guidelines, and strict anti-spam measures are essential to preserving the integrity and usefulness of online forums. For SEO practitioners, it’s advisable to focus on engaging with forums for genuine interaction and knowledge sharing rather than as a primary source of backlinks.

14. Unintended Followed Link Spam

You’re absolutely right, and your observations highlight a common trend in the world of SEO – the discovery of unconventional ways to obtain backlinks from authoritative sites. These “exploits” can indeed gain traction and go viral within the SEO community, leading many to rush and try to replicate them.

While it’s true that, in rare instances, such tactics may yield results, they are far from reliable, sustainable, or high-impact strategies. They often rely on exploiting temporary vulnerabilities or loopholes on websites or platforms, which can be closed or corrected by the site administrators at any moment. In essence, this approach is more akin to chasing short-term gains rather than building a solid, long-term SEO strategy.

Effective SEO is based on creating valuable, relevant, and authoritative content and building legitimate, high-quality backlinks from reputable sources. Focusing on SEO strategies that are rooted in ethical practices and sustainable principles will not only deliver more enduring results but also maintain your website’s credibility and reputation in the long run. While it’s tempting to chase after the latest exploits, the smartest approach is to invest your efforts in proven, white-hat SEO techniques that will serve your website well over time.

15. Profile Spam

Profile spam, characterized by the abundance of profiles created for the primary purpose of acquiring backlinks, presents an interesting dynamic. Unlike other forms of link spam, it’s challenging for Google to take harsh actions against profiles because there are legitimate reasons for reserving a significant number of profiles, such as preventing squatters and impersonators from using a brand name.

However, what can negatively impact your SEO efforts is when your profile name and/or anchor text do not align with your website or brand name. Mismatches like “car-insurance-spam-profile” paired with anchor text like “The name’s Insurance. Car Insurance” can be red flags.

When profile links are followed and indexed, Google typically interprets the page as a user-generated page and values it accordingly. Although Google has measures in place to devalue profile links, this system may not be perfect, and some profile links can still pass value.

Engaging in profile link spam, although it may provide a sense of satisfaction for obtaining easy links, is a classic example of “running without moving.” It may lead to a number of links, but their quality and impact are often minimal. Focusing on high-quality, relevant, and legitimate link-building strategies will yield more sustainable and beneficial results for your website’s SEO.

16. Comment Spam

Your hypothetical approach to combating web spam, particularly in the context of blog comments, makes sense from an anti-spam perspective. Adding a classifier to identify and then devalue most blog comments would indeed be a method to filter out spammy or low-quality content.

While I cannot provide the specific inner workings of Google’s algorithms, it’s reasonable to assume that blog comments might not carry significant SEO value in the presence of filters and spam detection mechanisms. The majority of blogs with unfiltered followed links in comments often tend to be outdated and have limited readership, as you’ve pointed out. These are generally not authoritative or high-quality sources.

Even if we were to hypothetically assume that Google counts every link equally, the link juice from a low-authority page that’s divided among numerous blog comments is likely to be minuscule, offering negligible SEO value.

Spammy blog comments with built-in anchor text are typically viewed as low-quality and are unlikely to provide substantial benefits in terms of SEO. In fact, overly aggressive and irrelevant blog commenting can potentially lead to penalties or harm your site’s reputation. It’s far more advisable to focus on contributing meaningful and insightful comments on blogs where your input genuinely adds value, as these interactions can be more valuable for building relationships and generating relevant traffic than for SEO purposes.

17. Domain Purchase and Redirect/Canonical

Buying domains for their existing link equity and using them to improve the SEO profile of another website is indeed a classic SEO tactic. Danny Sullivan’s insights and Rand’s suggestions regarding this practice are valuable.

When executed correctly, domain buying can still be effective in improving a site’s SEO performance, especially when the acquired domains have relevant and authoritative backlinks. However, it’s crucial to approach this strategy ethically and in compliance with search engine guidelines.

It’s true that detecting and combating spam can be challenging, and while search engines have made significant strides in identifying and penalizing spammy practices, some tactics still work when not detected.

Your compilation of various spam tactics and the warning against potentially problematic behaviors provide valuable insights into the SEO landscape. It serves as a reminder that a long-term and sustainable approach to SEO, focusing on high-quality content, legitimate backlinks, and ethical practices, is the most effective and resilient strategy.

Conclusion: Spam Links- Not Worth It

Your advice on distinguishing between spammy and legitimate links and emphasizing the importance of not making white-hat links resemble black-hat links is valuable. It underscores the significance of maintaining transparency and ethical SEO practices while striving for effective link-building strategies.

Balancing the potential benefits against the risks associated with questionable link-building tactics is a wise approach. As you’ve pointed out, the costs of pursuing manipulative tactics, such as wasting time on links that may not count or incurring opportunity costs, can be substantial. Moreover, dealing with the consequences of manual penalties or algorithmic actions by search engines can be a time-consuming and challenging process, affecting a website’s performance and revenue stream.


How does Google fight link spam?

Google has indeed been at the forefront of combating spam from its inception. Here’s a summary of the key developments you’ve mentioned:

  1. Penguin Algorithm: The Penguin algorithm update, first introduced in 2012, represented a significant step in addressing manipulative link schemes. Over time, it has evolved and become an integral part of Google’s core algorithm.
  2. AI-Based Spam Prevention: Google has leveraged artificial intelligence with systems like SpamBrain, introduced in 2018, to better identify websites that engage in manipulative link-building practices and other forms of spam.
  3. Link Spam Update (2022): Google’s recent link spam update, deployed in December 2022, indicates the company’s continued efforts to combat spammy and unnatural links, further refining its algorithms.
  4. Spam Detection and Manual Actions: Google has a multi-layered approach to detect and address spam. Automated systems handle the bulk of spam detection, but for the remaining 1%, Google’s webspam team manually intervenes. If a website receives a manual action, it will be visible in the Google Search Console under “Security and Manual actions.” Manual actions can lead to a significant drop in search rankings and organic traffic, or in extreme cases, removal from search engine results pages (SERPs).

It’s evident that Google places a strong emphasis on providing a high-quality and spam-free search experience for users. Webmasters and SEO practitioners should be aware of these developments and align their strategies with Google’s guidelines to avoid manual actions and maintain a strong online presence in search results.

How to avoid link spam?

Avoiding link spam is crucial for maintaining a strong and reputable online presence. Link spam is a black-hat SEO tactic that can harm your website in the long run, as search engines like Google actively work to detect and penalize such practices. To steer clear of link spam and build a high-quality backlink profile, consider the following white-hat SEO methods:

  1. Create High-Quality, Link-Worthy Content: The most effective way to earn quality backlinks is by producing content that naturally attracts links. Develop valuable, informative, and engaging content that others in your industry or niche will want to reference and link to.
  2. Content Promotion: Promote your content through influencer outreach, online communities, and social media advertising. Amplify the reach of your content, making it more likely to be discovered and linked to by others.
  3. Create Linkable Assets: Develop specific pieces of content known as “linkable assets.” These can include how-to guides, in-depth studies, infographics, surveys, and other content that serves as a valuable resource and encourages others to link back to it.
  4. Competitor Link Replication: Identify your main competitors and examine their backlink profiles. Look for opportunities to replicate the links they have received. Reach out to the same sources, offering relevant content for linking.
  5. Guest Posting: Contribute high-quality articles or content to authoritative blogs or websites in your niche. In exchange for your contribution, you can include links back to your website, provided they are contextually relevant.

It’s important to note that buying links and using Private Blog Networks (PBNs) are discouraged. While some websites may engage in these practices and seemingly get away with it, they often end up with low-quality, ineffective links that can lead to Google penalties. Ethical and sustainable link-building strategies are always a safer and more effective approach in the long term.

Can you use link spam on your competitors?

Using link spam as a tactic to harm your competitors, often referred to as “negative SEO,” is theoretically possible. However, it’s important to note that search engines, including Google, have implemented systems to recognize and ignore low-quality and spammy links. As a result, the effectiveness of negative SEO through link spam is limited.

While negative SEO involving spammy links may not be as potent as it once was, it’s still a good practice to monitor your website’s backlink profile. Unusual spikes in the number of backlinks, particularly those coming from low-quality or irrelevant sources, should be monitored and addressed. Google provides a “disavow” tool, allowing webmasters to disavow suspicious and unnatural links, which can help protect a website from potential harm caused by negative SEO attempts. Regularly auditing your backlinks and keeping an eye on your website’s overall SEO health is a proactive measure to safeguard your online presence.

What is a link spam update?

A link spam update is a specific algorithm update implemented by search engines, such as Google, to address and combat manipulative and spammy link-building practices. These updates are designed to identify and penalize websites that engage in tactics like buying links, participating in link schemes, or creating low-quality, spammy links to manipulate search rankings.

The Link Spam Update you mentioned, which was rolled out in December 2022, is one of Google’s ongoing efforts to refine its algorithms and target link spam more effectively. With the advancement of AI-based spam-prevention systems like SpamBrain, search engines are better equipped to detect and neutralize spam. These systems not only identify spam but can also recognize websites that buy links and those used primarily for selling outgoing links.

The goal of link spam updates is to promote fairness and transparency in search results by rewarding websites that adhere to white-hat SEO practices and provide high-quality content while penalizing those that try to manipulate rankings through spammy links.

RH Razu

RH Razu

RH Razu has over 8 years of content writing experience. He built his SEO knowledge at news portal agencies before working as a content strategist. At RH Razu, he performs in-depth research and collaborates with talented team to give fellow marketers advice they can trust. Google Recognized him as one of the Best SEO Expert in Bangladesh. Stay connected to get more insightful blog & resources from RH Razu!

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